Mosquito- and Tick-borne Illnesses: What You Need to Know

Mosquito- and Tick-borne Illnesses: What You Need to Know

For mosquitoes and ticks, summer means one thing: lots of bare human skin to bite. And with more bites come more opportunities for them to spread the illnesses they carry—some of which can be deadly. 

 

Summit Health's Dr. Anca Georgescu who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases says, “Many mosquito- and tick-borne illnesses are difficult to treat or even detect, so preventing bites from occurring in the first place is vital.” While you might think you're more likely to encounter mosquitoes and ticks while you're out in nature, they're also very common in urban areas. 

 

Below are some of the more common tick- or mosquito-borne illnesses found in the United States.  

 

Lyme Disease: This is transmitted through the bite of an infected black-legged tick, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, fever, and skin rashes. Some people don't develop symptoms at all, but if it's not treated with antibiotics in the early stages, it can spread to the heart, nervous system, and joints. 

 

West Nile Virus: This virus is spread to humans when they are bitten by a mosquito that has fed on infected birds. The virus can cause mild illness to inflammation of the brain and spinal cord in more extreme cases, with people over 50 at higher risk for severe symptoms. 

 

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever:Three types of ticks spread this: the Rocky Mountain wood tick, American dog tick, and  brown dog tick. Common symptoms include nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, fever, and skin rash. It can become life-threatening if not treated early on with antibiotics 

 

Below, Dr. Georgescu offers tips on how to keep yourself safe this summer. 

 

How to protect yourself from mosquito bites 

If you're around mosquito-infested areas, consider the following tips to stay safe: 

 

- Cover up. Wear closed-toe shoes, socks, and long pants and sleeves, especially at dusk and dawn when mosquitoes are most active. 

 

- Use repellent. Apply mosquito repellents with ingredients such as DEET, picaridin, oil of lemon, and IR3535 to your bare skin and clothing. 

 

- Use screens.Place mosquito screens over all your doors and windows at home. 

 

- Drain standing water around the house.This includes watering cans, bird baths, plastic swimming pools, toys, pet bowls, and tarps and gutters that have accumulated rainwater. 

 

How to protect yourself from tick bites 

Tick bites often happen without us realizing it, so it's important to stay vigilant. Here's how: 

 

- Stay on the trails. Avoid heavily wooded areas where you might be brushing against grass and leaves, as well as areas at high risk for Lyme disease. 

 

- Dress appropriately. Cover up as much as possible and wear light-colored clothing, which  makes it easier to spot ticks. When you arrive home, remove your clothing and put it in the dryer on high heat to kill any ticks you may have missed. 

 

- Do a full-body check.Look for ticks behind your knees and ears, in your elbow crease, along the hairline, and in your underarms and groin area. Take a shower to wash away any you might have missed. 

 

- Cut your grass short.Remove any leaves on the ground, clear brush and tall grasses around the home, and keep toys and play sets away from wooded areas. 

 

- Protect your pets.Ask your veterinarian for safe tick-prevention products. 

 

What to do if you've been bitten  

If you're  bitten by a tick, use clean forceps or tweezers to pull it straight out. Don't crush or break it. Disinfect the area and your hands, place the tick in a sealed container, and call your doctor to get tested. Likewise, if you've been bitten by a tick or mosquito and  are experiencing any of the symptoms describe above, contact your doctor immediately. In many cases your provider can reassure you and help you avoid unnecessary concern, and when appropriate they can prescribe timely antibiotics that are highly effective in preventing diseases such as Lyme.